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MULTI LAYER PCB STACK

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FOUND THESE ARTICLE VERY HELPFUL, MUST FOR BEGINNERS…..

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PCB Stack-Up

Part 1. Introduction

PCB stack-up is an important factor in determining the EMC performance of a product.  A good stack-up can be very effective in reducing radiation from the loops on the PCB (differential-mode emission), as well as the cables attached to the board (common-mode emission).  On the other hand a poor stack-up can increase the radiation from both of these mechanisms considerably.

Four factors are important with respect to board stack-up considerations:

1. The number of layers,
2. The number and types of planes (power and/or ground) used,
3. The ordering or sequence of the layers, and
4. The spacing between  the layers.

Usually not much consideration is given except as to the number of layers.  In many cases the other three factors are of equal importance.  Item number four is sometimes not even known by the PCB designer.

In deciding on the number of layers, the following should be considered:

1. The number of signals to be routed and cost,
2. Frequency,
3. Will the product have to meet Class A or Class B emission requirements,
4. Will the PCB be in a shielded or unshielded enclosure, and
5. The EMC engineering expertise of the design team.

Often only the first item is considered.  In reality all the items are of critical importance and should be considered equally.  If an optimum design is to be achieved in the minimum amount of time and at the lowest cost, the last item can be especially important and should not be ignored.

Multi-layer boards using ground and/or power planes  provide significant reduction in radiated emission over two layer PCBs.  A rule of thumb, that is often used, is that a four-layer board will produce 15 dB less radiation than a two-layer board, all other factors being equal.

Boards containing planes are  much better than those without planes for the following reasons:

1. They allow signals to be routed in a microstrip (or stripline) configuration.  These configurations are controlled impedance transmission lines with much less radiation than the random traces used on a two-layer board.
2. The ground plane decreases the ground impedance (and therefore the ground noise) significantly.

Although two-layer boards have been used successfully in unshielded enclosures at 20 to 25 MHz, these cases are the exception rather than the rule.  Above about ten or fifteen MHz, multi-layer boards should normally be considered.

When using multi-layer boards there are five objectives that you should try to achieve.  They are:

1. A signal layer should always be adjacent to a plane.
2. Signal layers should be tightly coupled (close) to their adjacent planes.
3. Power and Ground planes should be closely coupled together.
4. High-speed signals should be routed on buried layers located between planes.  In this way the planes can act as shields and contain the radiation from the high-speed traces.
5. Multiple ground planes are very advantageous, since they will lower the ground (reference plane) impedance of the board and reduce the common-mode radiation..

Often we are faced with the choice between close signal/plane coupling (objective #2) and close power plane/ground plane coupling (objective #3).  With normal PCB construction techniques, there is not sufficient inter-plane capacitance between the adjacent power and ground planes to provide adequate decoupling below about 500 MHz.  The decoupling, therefore, will have to be taken care of by other means and we should usually opt for tight coupling between the signal and the current return plane.  The advantages of tight coupling between the signal (trace) layers and the current return planes will more than outweigh the disadvantage caused by the slight loss in interplane capacitance.

An eight-layer board is the fewest number of layers that can be used  to achieve all five of the above objectives.  On four and six layer board some of the above objectives will have to be compromised.  Under those conditions you will have to determine which objectives are the most important to the design at hand.

The above paragraph should not be construed to mean that you can’t do a good EMC design on a four- or six-layer board, because you can.  It only indicates that all the objectives cannot be met simultaneously and some compromise will be necessary.  Since all the desired EMC objectives can be met with an eight-layer board, there is no reason for using more than eight layers other than to accommodate additional signal routing layers.

Another desirable objective, from a mechanical point of view, is to have the cross section of the board symmetrical (or balanced) in order to prevent warping.  For example, on an eight-layer board if layer two is a plane, then layer seven should also be a plane.  Therefore, all the configurations presented here use symmetrical, or balanced, construction.  If a non-symmetrical, or unbalanced, construction is allowed additional stack-up configurations are possible.

Part 2. Four-Layer Boards

The most common four-layer board configuration is shown in Fig. 1 (power and ground planes may be reversed). It consists of four uniformly spaced layers with internal power and ground planes. The two external trace layers usually have orthogonal trace routing directions.

_____________ Sig.
_____________ Ground                         Figure 1
_____________ Power
_____________  Sig.

Although this configuration is significantly better than a two-layer board, it has a few, less that ideal characteristics.  With respect to the list of objectives in Part 1, this stack-up only satisfies objective (1).  If the layers are equally spaced, there is a large separation between the signal layer and the current return plane.  There is also a large separation between the power and ground planes.  With a four-layer board we cannot correct both of these deficiencies at the same time; therefore, we must decide which is most important to us.  As mentioned previously, with normal PCB construction techniques there is not sufficient inter-plane capacitance between the adjacent power and ground planes to provide adequate decoupling.  The decoupling, therefore, will have to be taken care of by other means and we should opt for tight coupling between the signal and the current return plane.  The advantages of tight coupling between the signal (trace) layers and the current return planes will more than outweigh the disadvantage caused by the slight loss in interplane capacitance.

Therefore, the simplest  way to improve the EMC performance of a four-layer board is to space the signal layers as close to the planes as possible (<0.010″), and use a large core (>0.040″) between the power and ground planes as shown in Fig. 2.  This has three advantages and few disadvantages.  The signal loop areas are smaller and therefore produce less differential mode radiation.  For the case of 0.005″ spacing (trace layer to plane layer),  this can amount to 10 dB or more reduction in the trace loop radiation compared a stack-up with equally spaced layers.  Secondly, the tight coupling between the signal trace and the ground plane reduces the plane impedance (inductance) hence reducing the common-mode radiation from the cables connected to the board.  Thirdly, the close trace to plane coupling will decrease the crosstalk between traces.  For a fixed trace to trace spacing the crosstalk is proportional to the square of the trace height.  This is one of the simplest, least costly, and most overlooked method of reducing radiation on a four-layer PCB.  With this configuration we have satisfied both objectives (1) and (2).

_____________ Sig.
_____________ Ground                    Figure 2
_____________ Power
_____________ Sig.

What other possibilities are there for a four-layer board stack-up?  Well, we could become a little non-conventional and reverse the signal layers and the plane layers in Fig. 2, producing the stack-up shown in Fig 3a.

_____________ Ground.
_____________ Sig.                           Figure 3a
_____________ Sig.
_____________ Power

The major advantage of this stack-up is that the planes on the outer layers provide shielding to the signal traces on the inner layers.  The disadvantages are that the ground plane may be cut-up considerably with component mounting pads on a high density PCB.  This can be alleviated somewhat, by reversing the planes and placing the power plane on the component side, and the ground plane on the other side of the board.  Secondly, some people don’t like to have an exposed power plane and thirdly, the buried signal layers make board rework difficult if not impossible.  This stack-up satisfies objectives (1), (2), and partially satisfies objective (4).

Two of these three problems can be alleviated with the stack-up shown in Fig. 3b, where the two outer planes are ground planes and power is routed as a trace on the signal planes.  The power should be routed as a grid, using wide traces, on the signal layers.  Two added advantages of this configuration are that; (1) the two ground planes produce a much lower ground impedance and hence less common-mode cable radiation, and (2) the two ground planes can be stitched together around the periphery of the board to enclose all the signal traces in a faraday cage.  From an EMC point of view this configuration, if properly done, is the best stack-up possible with a four-layer PCB.  Now we have satisfied objectives, (1), (2), (4), and (5) while using only a four-layer board.

_____________ Ground.
_____________ Sig./Pwr.                           Figure 3b
_____________ Sig./Pwr.
_____________ Ground

A fourth possibility, not commonly used, but one that can be made to perform very well, is shown in Fig. 4.  This is similar to Fig  2, but with the power plane replaced with a ground plane, and power routed as a trace on the signal layers.

_____________ Sig./Pwr.
_____________ Ground                         Figure 4
_____________ Ground
_____________ Sig./Pwr.

This stack-up overcomes the rework problem mentioned before, and still provides for the low ground impedance as a result of two ground planes.  The planes however do not provide any shielding.  This configuration satisfies objectives (1), (2), and (5) but not objectives (3) or (4).

So, as you can see there are more options available, than you might have originally thought, for four layer board stack-up.  It is possible to satisfy four of our five objectives with a four layer PCB.  The configurations of Figures 2, 3b, and 4 all can be made to perform well from an EMC point of view.

Part 3. Six-Layer Boards

Most six-layer boards consist of four signal routing layers and two planes.  From an EMC perspective a six-layer board is usually preferred over a four-layer board.

One stack-up NOT to use on a six-layer board is the one shown in Figure 5.  The planes provide no shielding for the signal layers, and two of the signal layers (1 and 6) are not adjacent to a plane.  The only time this arrangement works even moderately well is if all the high frequency signals are routed on layers 2 and 5 and only very low frequency signals, or better yet no signals at all (just mounting pads), are routed on layers 1 and 6.  If used, any unused area on layers 1 and 6 should be provided with “ground fill” and tied into the primary ground plane, with vias, at as many locations as possible.

  ________________Signal
________________Signal
________________Ground
________________Power                           Figure 5
________________Signal
________________Signal

This configuration satisfies only one (number 3) of our original objectives.
With six layers available the principle of providing two buried layers for high-speed signals (as was done in Fig. 3) is easily implemented as shown in Fig. 6.  This configuration also provides two surface layers for routing low speed signals.

________________Mounting Pads/Low Freq. Signals
________________Ground
________________High Freq. Signals
________________High Freq. Signals           Figure 6
________________Power
________________Low Freq. Signals

This is a probably the most common six-layer stack-up and can be very effective in controlling emissions, if done correctly.  This configuration satisfies objectives 1, 2, & 4 but not objectives 3 & 5.  Its main drawback is the separation of the power and ground planes.  Due to this separation there is no significant interplane capacitance between power and ground  Therefore, the decoupling must be designed very carefully to account for this fact.  For more information on decoupling, see our Tech Tip on Decoupling.

Not nearly as common, but a good performing stack-up for a six-layer board is shown in Fig. 7.

 ________________Signal(H1)
________________Ground
________________Signal (V1)                                               Figure 7
________________Signal (H2)
________________Power
________________Signal (V2)

H1 indicates the horizontal routing layer for signal 1, and V1 indicates the vertical routing layer for signal 1.  H2 and V2 represent the same for signal 2.  This configuration has the advantage that orthogonal routed signals always reference the same plane.  To understand why this is important see section on Changing Reference Planes in Part 6.  The disadvantage is that the signals on layer one and six are not shielded.  Therefore the signal layers should be placed very close to their adjacent planes, and the desired board thickness made up by the use of a thicker center core.  Typical spacing for a 0.060″ thick board might be 0.005″/0.005″/0.040″/0.005″/0.005″.  This configuration satisfies objectives 1 and 2, but not 3, 4, or 5.
Another excellent performing six-layer board is shown in Fig. 8. It provides two buried signal layers and adjacent power and ground planes and satisfies all five objectives.  The big disadvantage, however, is that it only has two routing layers — so it is not often used.

  ________________Ground/ Mounting Pads
________________Signal
________________Ground
________________Power                                  Figure 8
________________Signal
________________Ground

It is easier to achieve good EMC performance with a six-layer board than with a four-layer board.  We also have the advantage of four signal routing layers instead of being limited to just two.  As was the case for four-layer boards, it is possible to satisfy four of our five objectives with a six-layer PCB.  All five objectives can be satisfied if we limit ourselves to only two signal routing layers.  The configurations of Figures 6, 7, and 8 all can all be made to perform very well from an EMC point of view.

Part 4. Eight-Layer Boards

An eight-layer board can be used to add two more routing layers or to improve EMC performance by adding two more planes.  Although we see examples of both cases, I would say that the majority of eight layer board stack-ups are used to improve EMC performance rather than add additional routing layers.  The percentage increase in cost of an eight-layer board over a six-layer board is less than the percentage increase in going from four to six layers, hence making it easier to justify the cost increase for improved EMC performance.  Therefore, most eight-layer boards (and all the ones that we will concentrate on here) consist of four wiring layers and four planes.

An eight-layer board provides us, for the first time, the opportunity to easily satisfy all of the five originally stated objectives.  Although there are many stack-ups possible, we will only discuss a few of them that have proven themselves by providing excellent EMC performance.  As stated above, eight layers is usually used to improve the EMC performance of the board, not to increase the number of routing layers.

An eight-layer board with six routing layers is definitely not recommended, no matter how you decide to stack-up the layers.  If you need six routing layers you should be using a ten-layer board.  Therefore, an eight-layer board can be thought of as a six-layer board with optimum EMC performance.
The basic stack-up of an eight-layer board with excellent EMC performance is shown in Fig 9.

  ________________Mounting Pads/Low Freq. Signals
________________Pwr.
________________Gnd.
________________High Freq. Signals
________________High Freq. Signals                                                      Figure  9
________________Gnd.
________________Pwr.
________________Low Freq. Signals/Test Pads

This configuration satisfies all the objectives listed in Part 1.  All signal layers are adjacent to planes, and all the layers are closely coupled together.  The high-speed signals are buried between planes, therefore the planes provide shielding to reduce the emissions from these signals.  In addition the board uses multiple ground planes, thus decreasing the ground impedance.

For best EMC performance and Signal Integrity, when high frequency signals change layers (e.g., from layer 4 to 5) you should add a ground-to-ground via between the two ground planes, near the signal via, in order to provide an adjacent return path for the current.  See “Changing Reference Planes” in Part 6, (Return Path Discontinuties) for a discussion of why this is important.

The stack-up in Fig. 9 can be further improved by using some form of embedded PCB capacitance technology (e.g. Zycon Buried Capacitanceú) for layers 2-3 and 6-7. For more information on embedded PCB capacitance technology, see our Tech Tip on Decoupling.   This approach provides a significant improvement in the high frequency decoupling and may allow the use of significantly fewer discrete decoupling capacitors.
Another excellent configuration, and one of my favorite, is shown in Figure 10.  This configuration is similar to that of Fig. 7 but includes two outer layer ground planes.  With this arrangement all routing layers are buried between planes and are therefore shielded.

 ________________Ground/Mounting Pads
________________Signal(H1)
________________Gnd.
________________Signal (V1)                            Figure 10

________________Signal (H2)
________________Pwr.
________________Signal (V2)
________________Ground/Mounting pads if double sided surface mount

H1 indicates the horizontal routing layer for signal 1, and V1 indicates the vertical routing layer for signal 1.  H2 and V2 represent the same for signal 2.   Although not commonly used this configuration also satisfies all the five objectives presented previously, and has the added advantage of routing orthogonal signals adjacent to the same plane. To understand why this is important see the section on Return Path Discontinuites.  Typical layer spacing for this configuration might be 0.010″/0.005″/0.005″/0.20″/0.005″/0.005″/0.010″
Another possibility for an eight-layer board is to modify Fig. 10 by moving the planes to the center as shown in Fig. 11.  This has the advantage of having a tightly coupled power-ground plane pair at the expense of not being able to shield the traces

.

 ________________Signal(H1)
________________Gnd.
________________Signal (V1)

________________Gnd.
________________Pwr.                                    Figure 11

________________Signal (H2)
________________Gnd.
________________Signal (V2)

This is basically an eight-layer version of Fig. 7.  It has all the advantages listed for Fig. 7,  plus a tightly coupled power-ground plane pair in the center. Typical layer spacing for this configuration might be 0.006″/0.006″/0.015″/0.006″/0.015″/0.006″/0.006.”  This configuration satisfies objectives 1 and 2, 3, and 5, but not 4.  This is an excellent performing configuration with good signal intergity and is often preferred over the stack-up of Figure 10 because of the tightly coupled power/ground planes.  One of my favorites.

The stack-up in Fig. 11 can be further improved by using some form of embedded PCB capacitance technology (e.g. Zycon Buried Capacitanceú) for layers 4-5.

There is very little EMC advantage to use a board with more than eight layers.  More that eight layers is usually used only when additional layers are required for signal trace routing.  If six routing layers are needed,  a ten-layer board should be used.

Part 5. Ten-Layer Boards

A ten-layer board should be used when six routing layers are required.  Ten-layer boards, therefore, usually have six signal layers and four planes.  Having more than six signal layers on a ten-layer board is not recommended.  Ten-layers is also the largest number of layers that can usually be conveniently fabricated in a 0.062″ thick board.  Occasionally you will see a twelve-layer board fabricated as a 0.062″ thick board, but the number of fabricators capable of producing it are limited..

High layer count boards (ten +) require thin dielectrics (typically 0.006″ or less on a 0.062″ thick board) and therefore they automatically have tight coupling between layers.  When properly stacked and routed they can meet all of our objectives and will have excellent EMC performance and signal integrity.

A very common and nearly ideal stack-up for a ten-layer board is shown in Figure 12.  The reason that this stack-up has such good performance is the tight coupling of the signal and return planes, the shielding of the high-speed signal layers, the existence of multiple ground planes, as well as a tightly coupled power/ground plane pair in the center of the board.  High-speed signals normally would be routed on the signal layers buried between planes (layers 3-4 and 7-8 in this case).

 ________________Signal (low-speed signals)
________________Gnd.
________________Signal (high-speed signals & clocks)
________________Signal (high-speed signals & clocks)
________________Pwr.                                                                        Figure 12
________________Gnd.
________________Signal (high-speed signals & clocks)
________________Signal (high-speed signals & clocks)
________________Gnd. or Pwr.
________________Signal (low-speed signals)

The common way to pair orthogonally routed signals in this configuration would be to pair layers 1 & 10 (carrying only low-frequency signals), as well as pairing layers 3 & 4, and layers 7 & 8 (both carrying high-speed signals).  By paring signals in this manner, the planes on layers 2 and 9 provide shielding to the high-frequency signal traces on the inner layers.  In addition the signals on layers 3 & 4 are isolated from the signals on layers 7 & 8 by the center power/ground plane pair.  For example, high-speed clocks might be routed on one of these pairs, and high-speed address and data buses routed on the other pair.  In this way the bus lines are protected, against being contaminated with clock noise, by the intervening planes.

This configuration satisfies all of the five original objectives.

Another possibility for routing orthogonal signals on the ten-layer board shown in Fig. 12 is to pair layers 1 & 3, layers 4 & 7, and layers 8 & 10.   In the case of layer pairs 1 & 3 as well as 8 & 10, this has the advantage of routing orthogonal signals with reference to the same plane.  The disadvantage, of course, is that if layers 1 and/or 10 have high frequency signals on them there is no inherent shielding provided by the PCB planes.  Therefore, these signal layers should be placed very close to their adjacent plane (which occurs naturally in the case of a ten-layer board).

Each of the routing configurations discussed above has some advantages and some disadvantages, either can be made to provide good EMC and signal integrity performance if laid out carefully.

The stack-up in Fig. 12 can be further improved on by the use of some form of embedded PCB capacitance technology (e.g. Zycon Buried Capacitanceú ) for layers 5 and 6, thereby improving the high-frequency power/ground plane decoupling,
Fig. 13 shows another possible stack-up for a ten-layer board.

 ________________Ground/Mounting Pads
________________Signal (H1)
________________Signal (V1)
________________Ground
________________Signal (H2)                                                      Figure 13
________________Signal (V2)
________________Power
________________Signal (H3)
________________Signal (V3)
________________Ground/Mounting pads if double sided surface mount

This configuration gives up the closely spaced power/ground plane pair.  In return it provides three signal- routing-layer pairs shielded by the ground planes on the outer layers of the board, and isolated from each other by the internal power and ground plane.  All signal layers are shielded and isolated from each other in this configuration.  The stack-up of Fig. 13 is very desirable if you have very few low-speed signals to put on the outer signal layers (as in Fig. 12) and most of  your signals are high-speed, since it provides three pairs of shielded signal routing layers.

One concern with this stack-up relates to how badly the outside ground planes will be cut-up by the component mounting pads and vias on a high density PCB.   This issue has to be addressed and the outside layers carefully laid out.

This configuration satisfies objectives 1, 2, 4, and 5, but not 3.
A third possibility is shown in Fig. 14.  This stack-up allows the routing of orthogonal signals adjacent to the same plane, but in the process also has to give up the closely spaced power/ground planes.  This configuration is similar to the eight-layer board shown in Fig. 10, with the addition of the two outer low-frequency routing layers.

 ________________Signal (low-speed signals)
________________Pwr.
________________Signal (H1)
________________Gnd.
________________ Signal (V1)                                                         Figure 14
________________ Signal (H2)
________________Gnd.
________________Signal (V2)
________________Gnd. or Pwr.
________________Signal (low-speed signals)

The configuration in Fig. 14 satisfies objectives 1, 2, 4, and 5, but not 3.  It, however, has the additional advantage that orthogonal routed signals always reference the same plane.

The stack-up in Fig. 14 can be further improved by the use of some form of embedded PCB capacitance technology (e.g. Zycon Buried Capacitanceú ) for layers 2 and 9 (thereby satisfying objective 3).  This, however, effectively converts it to a twelve-layer board.

Summary

The previous sections have discussed various ways to stack-up high-speed, digital logic, PCBs having from four to ten layers.  A good PCB stack-up reduces radiation, improves signal quality, and helps aid in the decoupling of the power bus.  No one stack-up is best, there is a number of viable options in each case and some compromise of objectives is usually necessary.

In addition to the number of layers, the type of layer (plane or signal), and the ordering of the layers, the following factors are also very important in determining the EMC performance of the board:

  • The layer spacing.
  • The assigning of signal layer pairs for orthogonal routing of signals.
  • The assignment of signals (clock, bus, high-speed, low-frequency, etc.) to which signal-routing-layer pairs.

This discussion on board stack-up has assumed a standard 0.062″ thick board, with symmetrical cross-section, and conventional via technology.   If  blind, buried, or micro vias are considered, other factors come into play and additional board stack-ups not only become possible but in many cases desirable.

Part 6. Return Path Discontinuities

One of the keys in determining the optimum printed circuit board layout is to understand how and where the signal return currents actually flow.  Most designers only think about where the signal current flows (obviously on the signal trace), and ignore the path taken by the return current.  Of course, the fact that many designers think this way helps to keep EMC engineers employed

To address the above concern we must understand how high-frequency currents flow in conductors.  First, the lowest impedance return path is in a plane directly underneath the signal trace (irrespective of whether this is a power or ground plane) since this provides the lowest inductance path.  This also produces the smallest current loop area possible.  Secondly, due to the “skin effect,” high frequency currents cannot penetrate a conductor, and therefore, at high-frequency all currents in conductors are surface currents.  This affect will occur at all frequencies above 30 MHz for 1 oz. copper layers in a PCB.  Therefore, a plane in a PCB is really two conductors not one conductor.  There will be a current on the top surface of the plane, and there can be a different current or no current at all on the bottom surface of the plane.

A major EMC problem occurs when there are discontinuities in the current return path.  These discontinuities cause the return current to flow in larger loops, which increases the radiation from the board as well as increases the crosstalk between adjacent traces and causes waveform distortion. In addition in constant impedance PCBs the return path discontinuity will change the characteristic impedance of the trace.  The most common return path discontinuities are discussed below.
Slots in Ground/Power Planes.  When a trace crosses a slot in the adjacent power or ground plane, the return current is diverted from underneath the trace in order to go around the slot. This causes it to flow through a much bigger loop area.  The longer the slot the bigger the loop area becomes. The most important thing that I can say about slots in ground planes, is don’t have them!  If you do have slots, make sure that no traces cross over them on adjacent layers.

If you absolutely must route a signal across a power or ground plane slot, place a few small stitching capacitors across the slot, one on either side of the trace (0.001 or 0.01 uF should be adequate).  This will provide high-frequency continuity across the slot for the return current.  To be effective the capacitors should be located within 0.1″ of the trace.

For more information on slots in power/ground planes see our Tech Tip, Slots in Ground Planes.
Split Ground/Power Planes.  When a trace crosses a split in the adjacent plane, as in the 4-layer board example shown below, the return current path is interrupted.  The current must find another way to get across the split, which forces it to flow in a much bigger loop.

__________________————>_I__________________Signal Trace

_____I <————–______             _____I_<————__Split Power Plane

____________________I <————____________________Solid Ground Plane

___________________________________________________Signal Trace

In the case shown above the current will divert to the nearest decoupling capacitor in order to cross over to the solid ground plane, then on the other side of the split the current must find another decoupling capacitor in order to return to the power plane that is adjacent to the trace.  The interplane capacitance between the power and ground plane is too small to be effective except in the case of frequencies considerably above 500 MHz.

The best solution to this problem is to avoid crossing split planes with critical signal traces.  In the case of the above example the signal should have been routed on the bottom signal layer since that was adjacent to the solid ground plane.

If you absolutely must route the signal across the split plane, place a few small stitching capacitors across the split, one on either side of the trace.  This will provide high-frequency continuity across the split while maintaining dc isolation between the isolated sections of the split plane.  The capacitors should be located within 0.1″ of the trace and have a value of 0.001 to 0.01 uF according to the frequency of the signal.  This is far from an ideal solution, however, since the return current must now flow through a via, a trace, a mounting pad, a capacitor, a mounting pad, a trace, and finally a via to the other section of the split plane.  This adds considerable additional inductance in the return path (5 to 10 nH minimum).

If in the above example both the power and ground planes are split, you are really in trouble.  I leave it to you to figure out how the current gets across the split plane boundary.  In some instances it may have to go all the way back to the power supply.  If you have a split power and split ground plane the only acceptable solution may be to make sure that no signal traces cross the split plane boundary.

For additional information on split planes see our Tech Tip on Grounding of Mixed Signal PCBs

CHANGING REFERENCE PLANE:

When a signal trace changes from one layer to another on a PCB, the return current path is interrupted since the return current must also change reference planes (see right hand figure below).  The question then becomes how does the return current get from one plane to another?  As was the case for the split planes mentioned above the interplane capacitance is not usually large enough to be effective, so the return current will have to flow through the nearest decoupling capacitor in order to change planes.  This obviously increases the loop area and is undesirable for all the reasons previously stated.  One solution to this problem is to avoid switching reference planes for critical signals (such as clocks), if at all possible.  If you must switch the return path from a power plane to a ground plane you should place an additional decoupling capacitor adjacent to the signal via in order to provide a high-frequency current path between the two planes for the signal return current.  This is not an ideal solution, however, since the return current must now flow through a via, a trace, a mounting pad, a capacitor, a mounting pad, a trace, and finally a via to the other  plane.  This adds considerable additional inductance in the return path (typically 5 to 10 nH).


Note, that if the two reference planes are of the same type (either both power, or both ground) you can put a via (ground to ground or power to power) instead of a capacitor immediately adjacent to the signal via.  This is a much better solution than  using  a capacitor to connect the planes together, since the added inductance in the return path will be considerably less.

Referencing the Top and Bottom of the Same Plane.

Whenever a signal switches layers and references first the top and then the bottom of the same plane we must still ask the question, how does the return current get from the top to the bottom of the plane.  Do to the “skin effect” the current cannot flow through the plane, it can only flow on the surface of the plane.

In order to drop a signal via through a plane a clearance hole must be provided in the plane, otherwise the signal would be shorted to the reference plane.  The clearance hole provides a surface connecting the top and bottom of the plane and provides a path for the return current to flow from the top to the bottom of the plane (see left hand figure).  Therefore, when a signal passes through a via and continues on the opposite side of the same plane a return current discontinuity does not exist.  This is, therefore, the preferred way to route a critical signal if two routing layers must be used.  

SUMMARY:

High-Speed clocks and other critical traces should be routed (in order of preference):

1. On only one layer adjacent to a plane.
2. On two layers that are adjacent to the same plane.
3. On two layers adjacent to two separate planes of the same type (ground or power) and connect the planes together with vias wherever the signal changes planes.
4. On two layers adjacent to two separate planes of different types (ground and power) and connect the planes together with capacitors wherever the signal changes reference planes.
Avoid routing clocks or other critical traces across slots or splits in the adjacent plane.  The above guidelines are important for all PCBs carrying high-frequency signals, but are critically important in the case of boards with constant impedance transmission lines.

If you follow the guidelines presented in this series of articles, with respect to layer stack-up and the avoiding of return current discontinuities, you will produce better PCBs and avoid many of the most common EMC problems associated with boards.  It will not guarantee you a perfect PCB layout but it will go a long way towards reducing the emission, increasing the immunity, and improving the signal quality of your boards.

Jaadu teri Nazaar Intro Guitar Tabs

Simple Guitar Tabs for beginners

G-0———7-7-7-7-7-7—–5-7-5-3-2-0———————

Jaddu teri nazaar

G——–5-5-5-5–5-5—-3-5-3-2-0———-

D–3——————

Khusbhu tera badaan

G—-3-2—–2-0—–3-2—–2-0-

D-0——-0——-0——-0——

Tu ha kar ya Na kar (X2)

G-0-0——-8-10-8-7–0-0 –8-10-8-7-

Tu hai meri Kiran..(X2)

KEEP PRACTICING….\/_:)

TWO DIGIT COUNTER USING IR TRANSMITTER AND RECEIVER

This project is an Application/extension of Digital Pulse Counter.

Transmitter Part: The transmitter circuit (see Fig. 1) is built around timer NE555 (IC1), which is wired as an astable multivibrator producing a frequency of about 38 kHz. The infrared (IR) beam is transmitted through IR LED1.

HERE A is +9V and B is GND.

TransmitterIR TRANSMITTER(38KHz)

Receiver Part: There are two 7 segment displays driven by two CD4026B (CMOS DECADE COUNTER/DIVIDER) used here to count up to 99. Seven Segment display used are common cathode type(see fig below).

7seg Led7 SEGMENT DISPLAY(COMMON CATHODE TYPE USED)

Moving ahead when the transmitted signal is cut, Pulses are generated by the IR receiver TSOP1738. The output of TSOP1738 is then fed to monostable multivibrator circuit made using NE555. Then the controlled stable pulse of 250ms (T=1.1*R*C) is fed to CD4026B which will drive the unit place display to make it count from 0 to 9. When it overflows, carry is generated by this IC and this carryout is fed to another CD4026B driving Tens Place display . Thus making the whole circuit count 0 to 99. Similar CD4026 circuit can be added to increase the number of counts.

SchematicIR RECEIVER

This Circuit has various applications such as spring oscillation counting, Counting no of people entering through door(one way), as a bugular alarm, etc.

Here you can download the PDF Schematic of the receiver part.

Video:  TWO DIGIT FREQUENCY COUNTER USING IR TRANSMITTER AND RECEIVER

Goodbye Symbian, it’s time to let you go for good……

Finally! The news that Nokia has decided to cut the apron strings from its beloved Symbian OS just was a long time coming. It seemed like Nokia was simply flogging a dead horse, expecting it to go faster. It had its run, it survived this long and that’s something in itself. The time to let go was, well, a long time ago.

It is great news to hear that Nokia is finally putting the Symbian OS to rest. This was simply some baggage that needed to be shrugged off in a hurry. For any Nokia fan it’s great to see it picking itself up, dusting itself off and donning a new avatar with Windows Phone, all in a bid to re-establish itself as a major player in the market. What I find truly heartening is that it’s taking the best of the old ideas, updating them and incorporating them into its new products. This is what it should have done a long time ago, but as the cliché goes, better late than never. Anyway, no one was really looking forward to the next Nokia Symbian handset, but I know, I’m looking forward to the next Nokia Windows Phone.

Symbian was just not the OS it used to be. Belle or Anna might have brought some measure of innovation to the ailing operating system, but it was never enough to tear the crowds away from the Android and iOS. With dwindling market share, it was dying a slow and dreary death.

Nokia’s focus should now be a little more streamlined in terms of what it wants to achieve from the mobile OS market. If it’s going to stick to Windows Phone as a primary OS, then it should push the developer community to start taking more interest. That being said, Nokia’s efforts have been valiant and it’s time now to see a whole new Nokia.

The time has come to say goodbye

The time has come to say goodbye

Symbian served us well. It was my first love with the mobile phone, the jazzy colours, cool icons, smart functions—it was what ushered in the age of smartphones. Nokia has always had plenty to offer, but for some reason, there seemed to have been some hiatus in Nokia’s think tank and as a consequence, Symbian’s evolution remained relatively stagnant with only a few minor tweaks incorporated over the last couple of years. The mobile OS got smarter and Nokia, for some reason, chose to stay in the past.

While it got our attention by adding a few relevant technologies to the great hardware and trying desperately to push the OS as far as it would go, the hook was never the OS. Devices like the E7 Communicator or the Nokia N8and PureView 808 were great innovations, but only in distinct and specific features like design, hardware and, of course, their cameras. However, the complete package was just not good enough. We’ll never forget the handsets and will probably still compare them to some of the new devices whenever they try and up the specs, but all we’ll really be talking about is the camera and design again. But any such comparison or discussion gets derailed the moment we start talking of the operating system.

So, we finally bid adieu to the OS that got the ball rolling. Symbian, you showed others the way and will always be rembered as the pioneer, as far as I’m concerned, but it’s time we let go and move on. We salute you as we say goodbye.

COURTESY: TECH2

FM TRANSMITTER – MEDIUM RANGE – TESTED AND WORKING

The range of this FM transmitter is around 100 metres at 9V DC supply.

FM

Fig. 1: FM transmitter

The circuit comprises three stages. The first stage is a microphone preamplifier built around BC548 transistor. The next stage is a VHF oscillator wired around another BC548. (BC series transistors are generally used in low-frequency stages. But these also work fine in RF stages as oscillator.) The third stage is a class-A tuned amplifier that boosts signals from the oscillator. Use of the additional RF amplifier increases the range of the transmitter.

Coil L1 comprises four turns of 20SWG enamelled copper wire wound to 1.5cm length of a 4mm dia. air core. Coil L2 comprises six turns of 20SWG enamelled copper wire wound on a 4mm dia. air core.

FM

Fig. 2: Pin configurations of transistors BC548 and C2570

Use a 75cm long wire as the antenna. For the maximum range, use a sensitive receiver. VC1 is a frequency-adjusting trimpot. VC2 should be adjusted for the maximum range. The transmitter unit is powered by a 9V PP3 battery. It can be combined with a readily available FM receiver kit to make a walkie-talkie set as shown in Fig. 3

FM

Fig. 3: Walkie-talkie arrangement

FM TRX

ACTUAL PHOTO

I have used earphone speakers in replacement for condenser mic providing more portability.

COURTESY: ELECTRONICS FOR YOU

SIMPLE WATER LEVEL ALARM CIRCUIT USING IC 555 TIMER

Here is a simple water level alarm circuit using 555 timer that will produce an audible alarm when the water level reaches a preset level. The circuit can be powered of a 3V battery and is very handy to use.

The circuit is based on an astable multivibrator wired around IC1 (NE 555).

WLAC

FIG 1. WATER LEVEL ALARM CIRCUIT USING NE555 TIMER

The operating frequency of the astable multivibrator here will depend on capacitor C1, resistances R1,R2 and the resistance across the probes A&B. When there is no water up to the probes, they will be open and so the multivibrator will not produce oscillations and the buzzer will not beep.When there is water up to the level of probes, some current will pass through the water, the circuit will be closed to some extend and the IC will start producing oscillations in a frequency  proportional to the value of C1,R1,R2 and the resistance of water across the probes. The buzzer will beep to indicate the presence of water up to the level of the sensing probes.

The circuit can be powered by a 3-12V battery.

Symbian Anna Update – 36 Points –Generic Trouble Shooting – N8, E7, C7, C6-01

Generic Symbian Anna update Troubleshooting Guide

1. Why don’t I see Symbian Anna update packages in the software update client on my phone?

There could be several reasons.
1) Symbian Anna has not been released for your country yet and therefore no update is available yet.
2) Symbian Anna has been released for your country but you are using
a) a productcode that belongs to an operator that has not approved the update yet
b) a productcode that belongs to a country that has not released the update yet
3) You have checked for software updates in the last 24h and your phone is not showing new available updates, as it is only connecting to the server once every 24h and any other time only check its memory. To clear your phone’s cache, tap the Clock on your homescreen and change the date of your phone to next day (via Settings). For example, if todays date is 6th Nov, then set the date to 7th Nov. This will make existing updates visible.

2. Why don’t I see Symbian Anna update packages in OviSuite?

There could be several reasons.
1) Symbian Anna has not been released for your country yet and therefore no update is available yet.
2) Symbian Anna has been released for your country but you are using
a) a productcode that belongs to an operator that has not approved the update yet
b) a productcode that belongs to a country that has not released the update yet
3) You have checked for software updates in the last 24h and OviSuite is not showing new available updates, as it is only connecting to the server once every 24h and any other time only check its cache. Available updates will get visible after 24h – or try to update via the software update client in your phone (by using WiFi).

3. Why don’t I see Symbian Anna after just having my phone updated over the air via the Software Update client?

In some product codes/phone variants when updating via OTA (over the air) it is not possible to jump from the existing software version directly to Symbian Anna, if another software release has been accepted for that phone variant in between the old software and Anna. In this case when using OTA the intermediate software versions need to be installed first.
If using Ovi Suite or Nokia Software Updater (NSU) all variants of Symbian Anna supported phones can be updated directly to Symbian Anna.

4. Why can’t I download Symbian Anna application packages (Installation fails)?

The reason for this is most likely a problem with existing QT files on your phone. Please try the following:
A) Solution1 – especially if you have “Nokia bubbles” on your phone
–          Install the following QT files on the C: drive of your phone in exactly this sequence
* http://dl.nokia.com/ns/sdo/QtSA4.7.301.sisx
*http://dl.nokia.com/ns/sdo/QtWebkitSA4.8.0.sisx
*http://dl.nokia.com/ns/sdo/QtMobilitySA1.1.301.sis
–          While you install above QT files you MUST keep the following things in mind:
*Installation must be done to C: drive of the phone. If you by mistake select E: drive, you can cancel the installation and re-install again. If E: drive installation is complete, you can re-install one more time and select C: drive for installation.
*Installation order must be met. First it has to be QT (QtSA4.7.301.sisx).
–          Open the software update client on your phone via Menu>Applications>(Tools>)Softwareupdate
–          Select the shown Symbian Anna application packages and start the update
B) Solution2:
– Launch the File manager on your phone (Typically found: Menu -> Applications -> Office -> File mgr.)
– Choose Options -> Find -> E: Mass memory -> Root folder
– In the “Find text:” window, type “*.sisx” (without double quote) and the select find.
– It will display many sisx files starting with “TMP”. Example: TMP3efa4.sisx.
– Now select Options -> Mark multiple items  and now mark all sisx starting with “TMP”.
– After marking them select Options -> Delete and delete all of them.
– Now tap the Clock on your homescreen and change the date of your phone to next day (via Settings). For example, if todays date is 6th Nov, then set the date to 7th Nov. This is needed to clear the software update cache and make new updates visible.
– Open the “SW update” application.
– Select the shown Symbian Anna application packages and start the update

5. Why have I lost Quickoffice and Adobe pdf reader after downloading and installing Symbian Anna?

It’s crucial that you not only download the operating system but also the Symbian Anna application packages. They are available via Ovi Suite update or over the air (depending on your country and operator) as well. The package called Symbian Anna 1/2 contains the Quickoffice and pdf reader, and Symbian Anna 2/2 contains other important service updates, so we recommend updating everything you see in Ovi Suite or the Software Update client.

6. Why do I get an error message “Phone setup: Feature not supported” after the update to Symbian Anna?

The message will vanish as soon as the application package Symbian Anna 2/2 is installed, which is part of the Symbian Anna update.

7. Why do I get Error 12017 when trying to update to Symbian Anna via OviSuite?

Error 12017 (FailDeviceError) means that the device is not responding.
1. Check if the device reboots normally. If it doesn’t, Nokia OVI suite cannot talk to it.
2. Check if it connects to Windows through USB normally and it is in “OVI Suite” mode. Make sure USB connection works reliably and the USB driver is up to date. You can also try to change the USB port if there is USB hub or internal hub in laptop computer that can work less reliably.

8. What happens if I skip the application updates (i.e. have only downloaded the operating system update) while updating to Symbian Anna?

Application updates are classified as either mandatory (Symbian Anna 1/2), important (Symbian Anna 2/2), or optional (Social, Ovi Store, Angry birds). If those application updates are not done, your experience will not be optimal. Without these updates you’d:
– not have Adobe PDF reader.
– not have Quickoffice.
– not have Microsoft Office Communicator.
– not have In Device Search.
– not have Internet Radio.
– not have Social client.
– not have a working music store.
– have issues with Phone feature is not supported appearing every boot.
– have subtitle support missing from Video player.
– miss all Surround icons for apps that are included in the application packages
– miss all the error fixes to the service/TPO clients.
– miss all the enablers ( NAC, Qt, SSO, Ovi Notifications ..).
– The email attachments can’t be read as Quickoffice/Adobe reader won’t function.
–  You might see mixed old & new icons in the menu or Homescreen.
No further application updates can be done unless the mandatory Symbian Anna package is installed.

9. Why do I get the message “Phone feature not supported” after the Symbian Anna upgrade?

This message is displayed if only the Symbian Anna device upgrade has been installed, but not the Symbian Anna Application packages. Install the Symbian Anna Update 1/2 and Symbian Anna Update 2/2 as that will solve the issue.

10. What is included in the Symbian Anna Update ½ and 2/2 application packages?

Symbian Anna Update 1/2 includes the following:
Adobe (PDF) reader 10.00(245) / Quickoffice 6.04(460) / QT 4.7.3 / QT Mobility 1.1.3. / Qt webkit 4.8.0. / CPService_2.0.11119 / CWRTCore_1.0.11124 / LKM_1.0.11051 / ONSP_1.2.11120 / OVI 1.0.11121. / SCP_2.0.11121. / SSOUI_1.3.11120 / SSO_1.3.11120 / SSOUserName_widget_1.0.0 / ServiceProvider_1.0.11124 / CP_ launcher 2.1.1 / Veveo Indevice Search 2.39.201
Symbian Anna Update 2/2 includes the following:
2.3.6 – NAC. / 13.2.24 – Ovi Music 1.1. / 3.6.688 – Maps 3 SR6. / OviMaps-OriginOfDownload-3.6.1. / SignInEnabler_92_1_0NOCS. / Maps_ODML. / Internet Radio 3.03(0) / MS Communicator 2.01.369 / Psiloc font magnifier 3.2.0. / Shazam 3.01(0) / Jolkuspot 3.10. / Video Player 9.23(62). / Here and Now 2.0.3 / Internet Search Engine 3.0.8 / Home Screen Search Widget 2.0.5
Additional SW Update may contain the following optional applications:
Ovi Store 2.12.042 / Social 1.3.237 / NFC Sharing + Angry Birds Free with Magic

11. How should I update Symbian Anna if I’m in an area with weak network coverage?We recommend to do the Symbian Anna update via Ovi Suite or via WiFi because of the update size (>80MB for over the air updates) and corresponding download times.

12. How do I update to Symbian Anna when my product code belongs to a “SWAP” device?

Nokia doesn’t offer Symbian Anna updates via OviSuite or OTA for product codes that are linked to a SWAP device at the moment. Please go to your local Nokia Carepoint to get your phone updated.

Application troubleshooting after Symbian Anna:

13. Why can’t I see the new surround icons after updating to Symbian Anna?

If a particular theme, e.g. Midnight Silver, has been installed before the software update, then the old theme by the same name will still be in use after the update. This can result in not showing the new surround icons or other theme features. To correct this, choose Menu > Settings > Themes > General and select the other Midnight Silver theme pack.

14. Why do I have mixed old & new icons in the menu or Homescreen after Symbian Anna update?

This happens if you have not installed the Symbian Anna application packages. Please download Symbian Anna 1/2, Symbian Anna 2/2, OviStore and Social via OviSuite or via WiFi by using the Software Client in your phone.

15. Why is the splitscreen Qwerty not visible when using Swype after Symbian Anna update?

You have to enable the Qwerty keyboard by opening the message view, selecting the Options button (that looks like a list) and selecting Qwerty keyboard. If you are using Swype, it might be blocking the Qwerty. Try to disable Swype and check if that solves the problem.

16. Why is the split screen view available in Messaging but not in Conversations after updating to Symbian Anna?

If split screen input does not appear (in latin-based languages) in conversations view then you have a conflicting conversations software in your phone. You need to remove it, it takes place via:
Settings | Application Manager |Installed Applications
–              List of installed applications appears, choose Conversations, remove it.
–              List of installed applications appears, choose Conversations Server, remove it.
Re-boot the device and split screen input should work after this.

17. Why don’t I have a splitscreen Qwerty after updating to Symbian Anna on a Chinese N8/C7/C6-01/E7?

The splitscreen Qwerty is not available for devices with a Chinese productcode/language, but will be part of the Symbian Belle update.

18. Why are my widgets not working after the Symbian Anna update?

If you have face this issue, please try a 8 sec reboot, by pressing and holding the powerbutton of your phone for 8 sec until you feel a buzz and the phone is restarting.

19. Why are my widgets slow to appear after the Symbian Anna update?

When the device is first switched on, and sometimes when a particular home screen has been inactive for some time, the widgets appear blank apart from titles and after a brief pause the correct content is displayed. This is normal behaviour and caused by the content harverster that is running in the background.

20. Why is Mail for Exchange (MfE) not syncing emails after the update to Symbian Anna?

After the update to Symbian Anna, some users experienced problems with MfE (errormessages: “Exchange server error. Try again later” / “Your account does not have permission to synchronize with current settings. Contact your administrator.”). To fix the problem do following steps:
1. Open Outlook web access with your PC browser, for example via https://%5Byour domain]/owa (depending on your network) – and log into your emails.
2. In your inbox, select Options (on the top right hand corner of your screen) and then See all Options.
3. Select Phone.
4. Delete all connections by selecting the respective phone and pressing (X).
Then just go back to the Mail for Exchange client on your phone and do a sync.
If above does not help, contact Nokia Support.

21. Why is Ovi Store not working after the Symbian Anna update?

This problem is linked to incompatibel QT components. Please do the following:
Solution A:
–          Install the following QT files on the C: drive of your phone in exactly this sequence
http://dl.nokia.com/ns/sdo/QtSA4.7.301.sisx
http://dl.nokia.com/ns/sdo/QtWebkitSA4.8.0.sisx
http://dl.nokia.com/ns/sdo/QtMobilitySA1.1.301.sis
–          While you install above QT files you MUST keep the following things in mind:
*Installation must be done to C: drive of the phone. If you by mistake select E: drive, you can cancel the installation and re-install again. If E: drive installation is complete, you can re-install one more time and select C: drive for installation.
*Installation order must be met. First it has to be QT (QtSA4.7.301.sisx).
–          Start Ovi Store
B) Solution 2:
– Launch the File manager on your phone (Typically found: Menu -> Applications -> Office -> File mgr.)
– Choose Options -> Find -> E: Mass memory -> Root folder
– In the “Find text:” window, type “*.sisx” (without double quote) and the select find.
– It will display many sisx files starting with “TMP”. Example: TMP3efa4.sisx.
– Now select Options -> Mark multiple items  and now mark all sisx starting with “TMP”.
– After marking them select Options -> Delete and delete all of them.
– Start Ovi Store

22. Why are my pictures slow to appear in the Gallery after the Symbian Anna update?

When the device is first switched on, the pictures in the Gallery take some time to be diplayed fully. This is normal behaviour and caused by the content harverster that is running in the background.

23. Why don’t I see all my pictures any more in the Photos application after updating to Symbian Anna?

The Photos application in Symbian Anna will only show the items located in the Images, Videos and DCIM folders (e.g. items captured by the user). If you have saved your pictures in a different folder, they won’t be visible after updating to Symbian Anna. If there are items that should be visible in the Photos application, move them to the Images or Videos folder on the mass memory or memory card.

24. Where should I copy the images and videos in my Symbian Anna phone if I want to view them in the Photos application?

Copy images to the Images folder and videos to the Videos folder on the mass memory or memory card of your Symbian Anna device if you want to view them in the Photos application.
Note that with the previous Symbian^3 software versions the Photos application showed items from all folders, so you may not be able to view some of your items any more after updating to Symbian Anna if copied to other than the above folders.

25. Why are my albums not shown properly after updating to Symbian Anna?

The Symbian Anna update added support for Album artist field/tag to the Music player and if any tracks on an album are missing this information, those tracks are shown individually under separate albums. To correct your music library move affected tracks to your PC, add Album artist detail to those tracks by using, for example, some tag editor application or similar functionality (Advanced Tad Editor) in the latest version of Windows Media Player, transfer tracks back to device and refresh your music library. Music ripped, for example, with latest version of Windows Media player will have correct Album artist detail in place as will music purchased/downloaded from Nokia Music Store.
For compilation albums with album artist information in the ID3 tag of a track and the same name in the track artist information, all tracks of an album are displayed as separate albums in landscape mode. This issue will be fixed in Symbian Belle.

25. Do you have problems with Symbian Anna & Nokia Big Screen?

If you have faced problems with Symbian Anna and Nokia Big Screen, please uninstall the old Big Screen Beta version and install a new one from Ovi via http://store.ovi.com/content/106490?clickSource=search&pos=1
In detail:
1. Uninstall Nokia Big Screen Beta:  Go to Settings > Application Manager > Installed Apps. Long press Nokia Big Screen Beta, and then Select Uninstall and “Yes” for all enquiries. After uninstallation, please make sure that all Big Screen related files are removed. If not, uninstall all packages starting with “Nokia big screen….” separately.
2. Install Nokia Big Screen from Ovi via http://store.ovi.com/content/106490?clickSource=search&pos=1

26. Why have I lost Quickoffice and Adobe pdf reader after downloading and installing Symbian Anna?

It’s crucial that you not only download the operating system but also the Symbian Anna application packages. They are available via Ovi Suite update or over the air (depending on your country and operator) as well. The package called Symbian Anna 1/2 contains the Quickoffice and pdf reader, and Symbian Anna 2/2 contains other important service updates, so we recommend updating everything you see in Ovi Suite or the Software Update client.

27. Why is my GPS very slow after the update to Symbian Anna?

This can be fixed by changing the settings in the Assisted GPS server. Do the following steps:
• Select Menu  > Settings > Application Settings > Positioning > Positioning server > Server Settings.
• It shows:  1 supl.nokia.com.
• By tapping that, it shows: Server address* Supl.nokia.com and Only in home network Yes.
• Switch Only in home network to No.
This setting should be set to No, because otherwise if you are in a different network than your home network your phone will not use GPS assistance, which results in a long wait to get a GPS fix.

28. How can I reduce the battery consumption after updating to Symbian Anna?

The increased battery life is most often caused by WiFi connections being active all the time. One application that is often connected to this is Microsoft Office Communicator that has to be closed properly via “Sign out” to also cut the connection (“exit” will leave the connection still open). Same applies for the Social client: If you sign out and exit the Social Client, then the WiFi connection will be cut as well.

29. Why don’t I have a Games folder on my N8/C7/C6-01/E7 despite updating to Symbian Anna?

The extra Games folder is part of the individual country & operator customization of your phone and not available for every variant.

30. What is the “Signal Booster” icon that is visible after the update to Symbian Anna in the Applications folder?

This icon is part of some Unlicensed Mobile Access (UMA) software for certain customers and will vanish as soon as your phone configuration is initialized properly after the update.

31. Why is the connection pop up missing after updating to Symbian Anna?

As part of the Symbian Anna update the Connection pop up is removed.  Meaning, once you connect to your operator internet or similar, there won’t be any pop up visible anymore.

32. Why don’t I see subtitles anymore In the video player after the update to Symbian Anna?

The subtitle support is part of the Symbian Anna application packages. Once you install those, the subtitles will be displayed again.

33. Why does my E7 display stay black when I make or receive a call after the Symbian Anna update?

This issue is a defect in your phone’s hardware. The shortterm solution is to open the slide and your display will be enabled again. For a full fix please contact your local Nokia Care Point.

34. What happens to paid licenses for Quickoffice and Adobe? Will the license still be valid after the Symbian Anna update?

Symbian Anna includes the full license for Quickoffice and Adobe. Once the mandatory application package (Symbian Anna 1/2) is downloaded, the Quickoffice and Adobe will function normally.

Connection settings with Symbian Anna:

35. Is network mode set back to “dual mode” after Symbian Anna update?

Yes, after the update, the network mode will be “Dual mode”, regardless of the previous choice. If needed, choose Menu->Settings->Connectivity->Network->Network mode and choose “GSM” again.

36. Data use in home country reverts to SIM default value after Symbian Anna update

After the Symbian Anna update, the Data use in home country will be the SIM default value defined by the operator, regardless of the previous choice. If needed, choose Menu > Settings > Connectivity > Settings > Data use in home country and choose another option.

Note: With the automatic setting, additional costs may occur, depending on the operator billing scheme.

WONDER ARCHITECTURE

Fortaleza de Sao Sebastio de Bacaim i.e. The fort of St. Sebastian of  Vasai.

Or simply as we call it ‘Vasai cha Killa’ has a great story behind it.
The architectural wonder built by Bahadur Shah, Sultan of Gujarat, left Vasai with historic importance. Modernity met the rich centuries of the past, The Vasai fort still resonates with the footfalls of marching history. The purpose behind building this huge structure was to keep watch over sea invaders. Main gate of the fort leads to a small courtyard, from where one can climb the battlements and can take a look over the creek. In 1535 Gujarat Sultan admit defeat to the Portuguese. They then captured the fort and remodeled it by building bastion inside. The fort was made the “Corte da Norte” or “the northern court” of  Portuguese dynasty, the second only to the city of Goa. There were 7 churches built inside the fort out of which 3 are still in recognizable condition.

Camera
Canon PowerShot A540
Focal Length
7.889mm
Aperture
f/4
Exposure
1/320s

Later, in 18th century Maratha army under the leadership of Chimaji Aappa attacked the fort after a three year old struggle.

Maratha’s could hold on the territory only for a short time, as British took the fort as the price of supporting one splinter group of Marathas against another.

Fort then remained under the territory of British for a long time.Though The Fort of St. Sebastian of  Vasai is in ruins, but still there are watch towers standing still with safe staircases leading up. Even today the structure gives a good idea of the floor plan, preserved barrel-vaulted ceiling, carved stones, some weathered beyond recognition, others still exhibiting sharp chisel marks. Though the root of the trees has damaged the structure, but still it is a great experience to sit and listen to the stories flowing in the air.Fort of “Jaldurg” or “Arnala Fort”. Is built on a small island off fishing village of Arnala. The name  given by Portuguese who rebuilt this fort called it “llhas das vocas”. In 1516, a local head of clan Gujarat, Sultan Mahmud Begda originally constructed the fort on the island located at the mouth of Vaitarna river. The Portuguese chief of Bassein donated the island to a Portuguese nobleman who tore down the old fort and began construction of  700 sq. foot fort. Though the fort was never completed by the nobleman, it remained under Portuguese control for two centuries, and used to control shipping and navigation along the northern edge. After winning the Battle of  Vasai , his general Shankarji Pant, persuaded Chimaji to launch an assault on Fort Arnala, for its strategic importance to the Maratha Navy in assaulting Portuguese interests. Their first assault , co-ordinates with a Maratha naval force commanded by Manaji Agre, was routed by a superior Portuguese naval force. A second assault on the fort on March 28, 1737, caught the Portuguese by surprise and forced them to abandon the fort. The victory was commemorated by a commemorative inscription on the northern wall of the fort and is still visible today. The Marathas then rebuilt the fort, constructing three citadel Bahirav, Bhavani and Bava.

The Marathas controlled the forth until 1817 when, Marathas were forced to surrender the fort to the British due to superior naval power of the British.

The Arnala and the Bassien forts were returned to the Marathas by the British in the treaty of  Salabai, but the forts again changed hands under the treaty of Pune. Even today, the watch tower on the outer wall, large hexagonal fresh water reservoirs, temples of Ambakeshwar, Goddess Bhavani, Lord Shiva, and the tombs of Shahali and Hajjali, the solid stone doorway which is adorned with pictures of  Tigers and Elephants and the external ramparts are in a fairly good condition.Today the fort is sadly in a state of disrepair and sheer neglect. Vasai -Virar Municipal Corporation (VVMC) has presented its first budget of 810 crore for ‘Destination Vasai’ on Wednesday. The focus will be on restoring and maintain of Chruches, forts, tourist and picnic spots. The funds for these projects will come from existing taxes, including property tax, LBT, water tax and fire service tax.

COURTESY:’ The Vasai Bulletin’  Ink that think

INSTRUMENTATION MAY BE INSTRUMENTAL……..

INSTRUMENTATION ROCKS……………!!

Are you at the edge of career selection? Perhaps ‘manufacturing versus Software’ dilemma has driven you to a fix. Try Instrumentation. It will provide you not only a job related to lots of software application but also the opportunity to become a stakeholder in the futuristic manufacturing wave of India.

Is there any common field across all manufacturing industries that is likely to demand the highest amount of investment and improvement in the next decade? The answer is instrumentation and control. As corporate majors try to increase productivity, one way they are likely to achieve this is through ‘sensorisation’ of all technologies ranging from food processing to mining. Flexibility and efficiency are going to be the differentiators in order to quickly develop and manufacture an increasing number of products to meet the rapidly changing demands of the market.

If you are ready to master a subject that is essentially a ‘mix’ of many other subjects, ‘instrumentation engineering’ can provide you the right foothold for career in many industries. Moreover, with growing competition, “timing and speed are going to become vital for survival and success of the future organisations. No organisation in today’s age can survive without agility and responsiveness to changing environments. Systemic efficiencies can only be brought in and improved through control and instrumentation. With companies becoming more and more complex and dispersed, there is need for efficient manpower,” says Sanjay Mittal, managing director, Yogasa Systems.

Know the field

India’s manufacturing industry, which is spurring the country’s GDP (gross domestic product) growth, is undergoing a major transformation. This sector is scaling up and beginning to seek global competitiveness through a wider application of instruments. This trend is contributing to the robust growth of the instrumentation and control market.

“According to a survey conducted by FICCI on ‘Emerging Skill Shortage in the Indian Industry,’ few sectors have been highlighted with shortage of manpower. Out of which, many cater to the need for instrumentation engineers alone. The shortage of instrumentation engineers is more due to less number of colleges offering B.Tech degree in instrumentation and control in India. Apart from this, automation of the small-scale industry in India requires well-trained instrumentation engineers having knowledge of computers and instrumentation,” opines Prof. Rekha Agarwal, head of Department of Instrumentation and Control Engineering, Amity School of Engineering and Technology.

“Timing and speed are going to become vital for survival and success of the future organisations. No organization in today’s age can survive without agility and responsiveness to changing environments. Systemic efficiencies can only be brought in and improved through control and instrumentation. With companies becoming more and more complex and dispersed, there is need for efficient manpower”

—Sanjay Mittal, managing director, Yogasa Systems

Instrumentation engineering is one of the complicated but sophisticated branches of engineering discipline that may be studied as a separate branch or along with electronics engineering. The study mainly focuses on the design, configuration and automated systems.

“It deals with measurement of various physical quantities like temperature, pressure, level, flow, speed, sound, light intensity and control of the same in various industries. Instrumentation system is widely used in industries, viz, automotive, pharmaceuticals, chemical, fertilizers, power plants, pollution control, biomedical, food processing, electronic product manufacturing and textile. With the advancement and widespread applications of electronics and computers in instrumentation and control, the syllabus is framed to include core courses of electronics as well as computer engineering,” explains Prof. R.D. Kokate, head of Department of Instrumentation Engineering, MGM’s Jawaharlal Nehru Engineering College.

According to Rohit Sinha, headhuman resources, L&T Engineering, E&C Division, “The Indian automation market has acquired the critical momentum to propel the instrumentation and control industry to a higher growth trajectory. Instrumentation is a well-established technology, both in the manufacturing sector and infrastructure. He feels that India’s hope of emerging as an economic superpower depends a lot on how we groom our engineers to leverage this technology. By transferring global-quality learning processes, we can convert a much larger percentage of the emerging manpower to more enriching careers.”

“The shortage of instrumentation engineers becomes more due to less number of colleges offering B.Tech degree in instrumentation and control in India

      Prof. Rekha Agarwal, head of Department of Instrumentation and Control Engineering, AmitySchool of Engineering and Technology

An instrumentation engineer can find a wide range of career opportunities in all sectors of industries ranging from automotive to healthcare. The passouts are absorbed in power plants, fertilisers and chemicals industry, petrochemicals industry, pharmaceutical industry, cement factories, healthcare services, consulting services, navigational and aerospace organisations, food processing industry and weather stations to name a few. Among the hundreds of corporate employers, some are Texas Instruments, HCL, TCS, ABB, Larsen & Toubro (L&T), National Instruments, Pepsi, Nagarjuna Fertilizers, Xilinx, Honeywell, Wockhardt, Bechtel and Saint-Gobin. In the public sector, there are SAIL, BHEL, NTPC, ONGC, Indian Oil, etc.

Know your role

Instrumentation and control engineers design, build and manage systems that are used in a range of industrial settings such as manufacturing, healthcare, food processing, mining and energy production. “An instrumentation engineer is invariably required where there is an engineering activity,” says Kokate.

Keep in mind, as an instrumentation engineer, you have to monitor, measure, regulate and control physical quantities like pressure and temperature. Further, you may need to control product movement, actuators and positioning devices. Your main objective will be to ensure that the systems and processes operate effectively, efficiently and safely.

Most of the jobs available in this field can be bucketed under two broad categories. “An instrumentation engineer usually gets involved either in the manufacturing and supply of the instruments or in the companies who use them,” says Mittal. The roles are defined depending on the requirements of the job. “Typically, an instrumentation engineer checks system’s complaints against the instruments, installs new systems or instruments, and evaluates the prototype,” explains Mittal.

“The Indian automation market has acquired the critical momentum to propel the instrumentation and control industry to a higher growth trajectory”

— Rohit Sinha, head-human resources, L&T Engineering, E&C Division

According to Mittal, with a sound knowledge of instrumentation and control, one may even be involved in designing a robot that can perform critical surgery or a system that follows Fuzzy logic control.

Further, you can also get abundant opportunities for higher studies in Indian and foreign universities.

Know the moolah

A fresh instrumentation engineer may start at Rs 200,000-400,000 per annum. However, the scene is a little bit daunting for diploma holders as their starting salary is only Rs 150,000 to Rs 200,000 per annum. Professionals with five to seven years of experience may get anywhere between Rs 500,000 and Rs 1 million per annum. Note that the salary is on the higher side for design engineers. If you can grab an international opportunity, the minimum salary may be in the range of Rs 2 million within about five years.

You could start at a junior level as part of a major project and grow to become a project leader in 10-12 years’ time. In most cases, salaries are proportional to the cost of the projects. For this kind of position, along with basic engineering, you will need to do project management consultancy to ensure reliable project execution.

Know the selection criteria

I believe, up to this point, you have received enough boosters about the opportunities- to-be grabbed in the instrumentation field. Let’s ask the experts how to get a foothold in this field.

“An individual interested to make his career in instrumentation engineering can take up ‘electronics and instrumentation engineering’ or simply ‘instrumentation engineering’ branch at the undergraduate level,” says C.P.Ravikumar, technical director-University Relation, Texas Instruments.

Mittal points out the opportunities available for diploma holders in the service sector. This field is specifically suitable for engineering professionals with multidisciplinary as well as project management interests, such as project engineering. Exciting and technically satisfying careers can be pursued in the field of technical marketing, design engineering, project management, integration and servicing.

And if you consider technology, I must say wherever there is a need for process control to increase productivity, there is instrumentation. It could be a human gene analysis laboratory or a locomotive workshop.

For working in this field, it is mandatory to have in-depth knowledge of mathematics and physics. With the advancement and widespread applications of electronics and computers in instrumentation and control, the syllabus is framed to include core courses of electronics as well as computer engineering.

Though an engineering degree is the obvious qualification to earn, graduate and postgraduate degree holders in physics also qualify to work in this field.

“The subject of instrumentation is quite vast. It is not fair to expect both breadth and depth from a fresh recruit. At the undergraduate level, the industry expects a good understanding of fundamental concepts,” says Sinha.

“Instrumentation deals with measurement of various physical quantities like temperature, pressure, level, flow, speed, sound, light intensity and control of the same in various industries. An instrumentation engineer is invariably required where there is an engineering activity”

      Prof. R.D. Kokate, head of Department of Instrumentation Engineering, MGM’s JawaharlalNehruEngineeringCollege

In sync with Sinha’s view, Kokate explains these fundamental concepts as a combination of both hardware and software knowledge along with an idea about the application domain. He specifically emphasises on “the knowledge of process plant, quality concerns, and international standards for process control.” Automation challenges in mechanical, electrical, electronic or interdisciplinary applications are also equally important. Additionally, an instrumentation engineer needs to have electrical engineering knowledge related to motors and pumps and chemical engineering knowledge related to reactors. Other than this, skills in SAP, Web designing, Internet protocols, digital communication devices and standards would be an added advantage for any aspiring candidate.

Agarwal expects a well-qualified instrumentation engineer to have sound knowledge of distributed control systems, programmable logic controllers, process control and CAD/CAM. The industry also looks for one who has in-depth knowledge of engineering fundamentals and is able to work in a team. Further, an instrumentation engineer should know how to transform design problems into floor solutions. The ability to work with good ethics and human values and strong interpersonal skills are must to have.

Agarwal defines the application areas as engineering design, industrial process plants, power production, petrochemical processing, oil extraction and gas refining, fertiliser industry, software automation of industrial plants, instrument manufacturing and automobile assembly line control.

The main metric is grip on control. And as a professional, you are expected to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to design a practical control loop as per that metric. If you can achieve it, instrumentation and maintenance related issues will automatically be on your fingertips. To make maximum use of the situation, you need to have expertise to survive in the globally competitive environment of automation.

Know the final bend

As is always the case, the earlier, the better. Academically, the right time to acquaint yourself with this multidisciplinary field of electronics is when you are in the second or third year of Engineering. Try to utilise your industrial training or final-year project for the same.

“Instrumentation plays a very important role in power electronics segment. An aspirant in this field needs to have clear idea about features like feedback, control and communication”

— R.K. Bansal, managing director, Uniline

Mittal points out, “An aspirant of this field can get holistic overview of ‘chip to ship’ of a control loop and instrumentation only after completing a project. Nearly all of our institutes, barring a handful, are woefully lagging in terms of providing students with such opportunities.”

If you feel that you lag behind due to lack of practical exposure, a strategically chosen industrial project may be the solution. I emphasise the word ‘strategically’ because that may decide whether you will get the job passport or your effort will go down the drain. So before choosing the project topic, judge your aptitude, utility of the project and also a suitable guiding environment. For example, involvement in a biosensor development project may provide you an entry ticket for the biomedical industry!

COURTESY: ELECTRONICS FOR YOU 

Guitar Chords: Give Me Some Sunshine, 3 Idiots

Strumming Pattern 1 Strumming Pattern 2
| 1 & 2 & | 3e&a4 & |

| D - D - | D-DUD - |
| 1 & 2 & | 3e&a4 & |

| D U D - | DUDUD - |

Chords used in the song:
C 032010
F 033211
Fbar 133211
G 320033
Gbar 355433
Sari umra hum mar-mar ke jee liye…
Ek pal to ab hume jeene do… jeene do…(Slide 7\3 on 5th string)

| C F | C F | C F | C F G |
| C F | C F | C F | C F G | (WITH BEATS)

Strumming 1
(C)Sari umra (G)hum, mar-(C)mar ke jee li(G)ye
Ek (C)pal to ab hu(G)me jee(F)ne do, jeene (G)do…
(C)Sari umra (G)hum, mar-(C)mar ke jee li(G)ye
Ek (C)pal to ab hu(G)me jee(Fbar)ne do, jeene (Gbar)do…
Strumming 1
(C)Na na na-na(G)… na-na (C)na na na-na(G)
(C)Na na na-na(G)… na na (Fbar)na na na na-(Gbar)naaa..
Strumming 2
(C)Give me some (G)sunshine
(C)Give me some (G)rain
(C)Give me (G)another chance
i wanna (Fbar)grow up once a(Gbar)gain… x2
Strumming 1
(C)
(F)Kandho ko (C)kitabo ke bojh ne jhukaya(F)
Rishwat(C) dena to khud papa ne sikhaya(F)
(C)99% marks (F)laoge to (G)ghadi, (C)warna chadi (F)
(C)likh-likh kar padha (F)hateli par
aplha, (C)beta, gamma ka(F) chala
(C)conc. H2SO4(F) ne pura, (C)pura bach(F)pan jala dala(G)
Strumming 1
(C)bachpan to ga(G)ya, ja(C)wani bhi ga(G)yi
ek (C)pal to ab hu(G)me jee(Fbar)ne do jeene (Gbar)do
Chorus
(C)bachpan to ga(G)ya, ja(C)wani bhi ga(G)yi
ek (C)pal to ab hu(G)me jee(Fbar)ne do jeene (Gbar)do oooooo
Melody (Piano)

E ----------------------------------------

B -13-13-10-11---11-10-13-13-10-11--------
G ----------------------------------------
D ----------------------------------------
A ----------------------------------------
E ----------------------------------------

E ----------------------------------------
B --11h13-13-10-11---11-10-13-12-13-13----
G -------------------------------------14-
D ----------------------------------------
A ----------------------------------------
E ----------------------------------------

(C)Sari umra (G)hum, mar-(C)mar ke jee li(G)ye
Ek (C)pal to ab hu(G)me jee(Fbar)ne do, jeene (Gbar)do…
(C)Na na na-na(G)… na-na (C)na na na-na(G)
(C)Na na na-na(G)… na na (Fbar)na na na na-(Gbar)naaa..
(C)Give me some (G)sunshine
(C)Give me some (G)rain
(C)Give me (G)another chance
i wanna (F)grow up once a(G)gain… x2
{No strumming}
Na na na-na… na-na na na na-na
Na na na-na… na na na na na na-naaa..
{Strumming}
(C)Na na na-na(G)… na-na (C)na na na-na(G)
(C)Na na na-na(G)… na na (F)na na na na-(G)naaa..

—————-

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